Terms A-Z

This glossary contains definitions of the terms from the topic areas Education, Science, Research and Innovation, and is regularly updated. The glossary terms are alphabetically ordered.

iABE – Integrated reporting on vocational training

Integrated reporting on vocational training brings together various official statistics to give an overview of the paths ... young people’s lives take and of vocational training pursued after leaving general schools.

A comprehensive system of (educational) sectors and accounts (qualification pathways) describes the programmes available above lower secondary level. Vocational education and training opportunities are categorized according to four (educational) sectors:

"Vocational training" (objective: full vocational qualification): A full vocational qualification is the foundation for entering and remaining in employment and for the ability to shape one’s own career.

"Integration into training (transition system)" (objective: vocational training): Integration measures serve to prepare young people for – and place them in – vocational training. It includes a wide range of programmes and measures, most of them publicly financed.

"Higher education entrance qualifications" (objective: acquiring a higher education entrance qualification): A higher education entrance qualification enables people to pursue higher education or vocational training.

"Academic degree programmes" (objective: higher education degree): A higher education degree is the foundation for high-level employment.

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ICE – Information, Controlling, Entscheidung (Information, Controlling, Decision)

ICE is a web-based information system that provides comprehensive data, particularly about those qualified to enter higher ... education, new entrants to higher education, students, examinations, graduates, and higher education financing.

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Industry expenditure on research and development (R&D)

R&D expenditure by business enterprises and institutions for cooperative industrial research and experimental development ... (IfG).

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Innovations

Innovations are new or significantly improved products or services that have been introduced to the market (product innovations) ... and new or improved production or delivery methods (process innovations) (cf. Oslo Manual 2005, sections 156 and 163).

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Institution of higher education

"Institution of higher education" is the general term used for different academic institutions, including those with a practical ... and artistic focus, that are engaged in training and the promotion of the sciences and arts through research and teaching. Institutions of higher education include universities, colleges of art and music, universities of applied sciences and colleges of public administration.

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ISCED 2011 – International Standard Classification of Education

ISCED was developed by UNESCO in the early 1970s to provide a consistent framework for collecting and presenting educational ... statistics, thus enabling or facilitating national and international comparisons. The classification was updated in 1997 (ISCED 97) and in 2011 (ISCED 2011) and reflects all organized learning processes (see table at the end of the glossary). Since 2015, the new ISCED 2011 is used in the education reports of interntional organisations (UNESCO, OECD, Eurostat).

Assignment of national education programmes to the ISCED 2011
ISCED level CategorySubcategoryEducation programmes

1) At grammar schools and integrated comprehensive schools leading to a school-leaving certificate after grade 12, upper secondary level begins at grade 10 instead of 11.).

2) Fully qualifying vocational programmes after obtaining a higher education entrance qualification or fully qualifying vocational programmes that additionally lead to a higher education entrance qualification get allocated to ISCED 454 pursuant to Eurostat definition. Last adjusted to the school year 2012/2013.

3) The allocation is based on the subject field of the preparation courses.

Notes on sub-categories

241
Insufficient for level completion or partial level completion, without direct access to upper secondary education.
244,254
351
Level completion, with direct access to upper secondary education.
Insufficient for level completion or partial level completion, without direct access to tertiary education.
353
Level completion, without direct access to first tertiary programmes (but may give direct access to postsecondary non-tertiary education).
344,354
Level completion, with direct access to first tertiary programmes (may also give direct access to postsecondary non-tertiary education).
453
Level completion, without direct access to first tertiary programmes.
444,454
Level completion, with direct access to first tertiary programmes.

Source: Federal Statistical Office, Bildungsfinanzbericht 2015, Anhang A3

ISCED 0 Early childhood education
ISCED 01
Early childhood educational development for children younger than three years
010
  • Crèches
ISCED 02
Pre-primary education for children from the age of three years to the start of primary education
020
  • Kindergartens
020
  • Pre-school classes
020
  • School kindergartens
ISCED 1 Primary education
ISCED 10 general education 100
  • Primary schools
100
  • Comprehensive schools (grades 1-4)
100
  • Waldorf schools (grades 1-4)
100
  • Special needs schools (grades 1-4)
ISCED 2 Lower secondary education
ISCED 24 general education 241
  • Orientation stages (grades 5/6)
244
  • Secondary general schools
244
  • Intermediate schools
244
  • Special needs schools (grades 5-10)
244
  • Schools with different courses of education
244
  • Grammar schools (grades 5-9/10)1
244
  • Comprehensive schools (grades 5-9/10)1
244
  • Waldorf schools (grades 5-10)
244
  • Evening secondary general schools
244
  • Evening intermediate schools
244
  • Catch up on lower secondary school degrees and fulfilment of compulsory education at vocational schools
244
  • Vocational schools that lead to intermediate degrees
ISCED 25 vocational education 254
  • Pre-vocational training year (and other vocational preparation programmes, e.g. at part-time or fulltime vocational schools)
ISCED 3 Upper secondary education
ISCED 34 general education 344
  • Grammar schools (grades 10-12/11-13)1
344
  • Comprehensive schools (grades 10-12/11-13)1
344
  • Waldorf Schools (grades 11-13)
344
  • Special needs schools (grades 11-13)
344
  • Specialised upper secondary schools – two-years (without previous vocational education)
344
  • Specialised grammar schools
344
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to higher education entry qualification
ISCED 35 vocational education 351
  • Basic vocational training year (and other basic vocational programmes that are taken into account to the first year of apprenticeship)
353
  • One-year programmes at training institutions/schools for health care and social professions
353
  • Civil service trainees in the middle grade of civil service
354
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system)
354
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate (excluding health care and social professions and educator training)
ISCED 4 Post-secondary non-tertiary education
ISCED 44 general education 444
  • Evening grammar schools, adult education colleges
444
  • Specialised upper secondary schools – one-year (after previous vocational education)
444
  • Two-year full-time vocational schools
ISCED 45 vocational education 453
  • Two- and three-year programmes at training institutions/schools for health care and social professions
454
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system) (second education after obtaining a higher education entrance qualification)2
454
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate (second education after obtaining a higher education entrance qualification)2
454
  • Vocational programmes that lead to a higher education entry qualification as well as to a vocational certificate (simultaneously or successively)2
454
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system) (second education, vocational)
454
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system) – retrainees
ISCED 5 Short-cycle tertiary education
ISCED 54 general education -
ISCED 55 vocational education 554 Master craftsman training (very short preparation courses only that last less than 880 hours)3
ISCED 6 Bachelor’s or equivalent level
ISCED 64 academic 645
  • Bachelor's programme at
    • Universities (scientific institutions of higher education including colleges of education, colleges of theology, and colleges of art and music)
    • Universities of applied sciences (including schools of engineering), Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University
    • Colleges of public administration
    • Vocational academies
645
  • Diplom degree programme at universities of applied sciences
645
  • Diplom degree programme at colleges of public administration
645
  • Diplom degree programme at vocational academies
647
  • Second bachelor's programme
647
  • Second Diplom degree programme at universities of applied sciences
ISCED 65 professional 655
  • Trade and technical schools (excluding health care and social professions and educator training) including master craftsman training (preparation courses lasting 880 hours or more)3, business economist, business administrator
655
  • Training institutions/schools for educators
655
  • Specialised academies (Bavaria)
ISCED 7 Master’s or equivalent level
ISCED 74 academic 746
  • Diplom degree programme at university (including teacher training, state examination, Magister programme, artistic and comparable programmes)
747
  • Master's programme at
    • Universities (scientific institutions of higher education including colleges of education, colleges of theology, and colleges of art and music)
    • Universities of applied sciences (including schools of engineering), Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University
    • Colleges of public administration
    • Vocational academies
748
  • Second master's programme
748
  • Second Diplom degree programme at university
ISCED 8 Doctoral or equivalent level
ISCED 8 academic 844
  • Doctoral studies
ISCED 9 No other classification
ISCED 99
No other classification
999 Mainly mentally handicapped pupils at special needs schools that cannot be assigned to an education area

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ISCED 97 – International Standard Classification of Education

ISCED was developed by UNESCO in the early 1970s to provide a consistent framework for collecting and presenting educational ... statistics, thus enabling or facilitating national and international comparisons. The classification of 1975 was updated in 1997 (ISCED 97) and now reflects all organized learning processes. In 2011 this classification was updated again (ISCED 2011) (see also ISCED 2011 – International Standard Classification of Education).

Assignment of national education programmes to the ISCED 97 1
ISCED levelEducation programmes

1) Last adjusted to the school year 2008/2009.

2) At grammar schools and integrated comprehensive schools leading to a school-leaving certificate after grade 12, upper secondary level begins at grade 10 instead of 11.

3) Since 2008/2009 including Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University (formerly: vocational academies that were assigned to ISCED 5B).

Quelle: Federal Statistical Office, Bildungsfinanzbericht 2013, Anhang A3

0 Pre-primary education
  • Kindergartens
  • Pre-school classes
  • School kindergartens
1 Primary education
  • Primary schools
  • Integrated comprehensive schools (grades 1-4)
  • Free Waldorf schools (grades 1-4)
  • Special needs schools (grades 1-4)
2 Lower secondary education
2AProgrammes designed for direct access to level 3A or 3B
  • general education
  • Secondary general schools
  • Orientation stages independent of school type
  • Intermediate schools
  • Special needs schools (grades 5-10)
  • Schools with different courses of education
  • Grammer schools (grades 5-9/10)2
  • Integrated comprehensive schools (grades 5-9/10)2
  • Free Waldorf schools (grades 5-10)
  • Evening secondary general schools
  • Evening intermediate schools
  • Vocational extension schools
  • General programmes at full-time vocational schools or pupils at part-time vocational schools who have no training contract and either comply with compulsory education, or gain lower secondary education degrees
2B Vocational preparation/vocational programmes
  • vocational preparation
  • vocational programmes designed for direct access to level 3B
Vocational preparation programmes (at full-time vocational schools, pre-vocational training year and pupils at part-time vocational schools who have no training contract, respectively)
2C Programmes not giving access to level 3 designed for direct access to the labour market -
3 Upper secondary education
3A Programmes designed to provide direct access to level 5A
  • general education
  • Grammar schools (grades 10-12/11-13)2
  • Integrated comprehensive schools (grades 10-12/11-13)2
  • Free Waldorf schools (grades 11-13)
  • Special needs schools (grades 11-13)
  • Specialised upper secondary schools – two-years
  • Specialised grammar schools
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to higher education entry qualification
3B Programmes designed to provide direct access to level 5B
  • vocational education
  • Basic vocational programmes that are taken into account to the first year of apprenticeship (at fulltime vocational schools, basic vocational training year)
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system)
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to a fully qualifying vocational certificate (excluding health care and social professions, educator training)
  • One-year programmes in health care professions (at full-time vocational schools or schools for nurses, midwives etc.)
3C Programmes not giving access to level 5 designed for direct access to the labour market or to levels 3 and 4
  • Civil service trainees in the middle grade of civil service
4 Post-secondary non-tertiary education
4AProgrammes that prepare for entry to level 5A
  • Evening grammar schools
  • Adult education colleges
  • Specialised upper secondary schools – one-year
  • Two-year full-time vocational schools
  • Combination of a general education programme (level 3A) and a vocational programme (level 3B)
    • Higher education entry qualification, then parttime vocational schools (dual system)
    • Higher education entry qualification, then fulltime vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate
    • Part-time vocational schools (dual system), then higher education entry qualification
    • Full-time vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate, then higher education entry qualification
    • Simultaneous acquisition of a higher education entry qualification and a vocational certificate (at full-time vocational schools and partly at specialised grammar schools)
4BProgrammes designed to provide direct access to level 5B
  • Combination of two programmes of level 3B
  • Part-time vocational schools (dual system), then full-time vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate
  • Full-time vocational schools that lead to a vocational certificate, then part-time vocational schools (dual system)
  • Two dual-system trainings in succession
  • Retrainees at part-time vocational schools (dual system)
4C Programmes not giving access to level 5 designed for direct access to the labour market -
5 First stage of tertiary education
5A
  • Universities
  • Colleges of education
  • Colleges of theology
  • Comprehensive universities
  • Colleges of art and music
  • Universities of applied sciences3
5B
  • Trade and technical schools
  • Specialised academies (Bavaria)
  • Vocational academies
  • Colleges of public administration
  • Two- or three-year programmes in health care and social professions or educator training (at full-time vocational schools or schools for nurses, midwives etc.)
6 Second stage of tertiary education
  • Doctoral studies
Programmes not assignable to a levelMainly mentally handicapped pupils at special needs schools that cannot be assigned to an education area

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