1) According to the ISCED classification: International Standard Classification for Education 2011. For older data according to ISCED 1997 see table 2.1.6 and archive tables 2.1.7/2.1.12.
2) In some instances including some expenditure on child care.
3) The year specifications may differ from the years of reference. For a detailed specification see source.
4) In some instances public institutions only (see source). Additionally for Switzerland in 2014: in parts public expenditure only.
5) The categories OECD/EU22 average represent those countries that were members of the OECD/EU in the respective year of reference.
6) Year of reference 2012: EU21 average.

a = data not applicable because category does not apply.
m = data not available.
y = data included in other category or column of the table.

Last update: December 2018

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