1) According to the ISCED classification: International Standard Classification for Education 2011. For older data according to ISCED 1997 see archive table 2.1.7. For data on early childhood education (ISCED 2011) see table 2.1.23.
2) 2012 and 2013: including undistributed programmes.
3) The year specifications may differ from the years of reference. For a detailed specification see source.
4) In some instances public institutions only.
5) As of 2014, primary education includes data from pre-primary (ISCED 02) and lower secondary education.
6) Year of reference 2012: pre-primary and primary education include reimbursements from local authorities for previous years.
7) Year of reference 2014: upper secondary education includes information from vocational programmes in lower secondary education.
8) For a precise allocation of which states were included in the calculation of the OECD average in the individual reporting years, see the respective edition of "Education at a Glance".
9) Average of the states of the European Union in the OECD (for an exact allocation see source). 2012: EU21 average; 2013 to 2015: EU22 average; 2016 to 2017: EU23 average; as of 2018: EU22 after the United Kingdom left the EU.

a = data not applicable because category does not apply.
m = data not available.
y = data included in other category or column of the table.

Last update: October 27, 2022

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