1) Expenditure pursuant to the performance concept. Demarcation pursuant to concept 2015. 2017 figures are preliminary. Possible rounding differences.
2) ISCED = International Standard Classification of Education.
3) Crèches, kindergartens, pre-school classes, school kindergartens.
4) Excluding trade and technical schools, specialised academies and vocational academies. Including schools for nurses, midwives etc.
5) Expenditure on company-based, extra-company and inter-company training under the dual system including training grants by the Federal Employment Agency, and the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
6) Excluding expenditure on patient treatment; including expenditure on trade and technical schools, specialised academies, vocational academies, R&D at higher education institutions, and the student services.
7) Expenditure can not be related to particular ISCED levels (including the estimated expenditure on training for civil servants, services of the public administration, and teacher training courses).
8) Estimate of the costs of continuing vocational training provided by companies is based on the results of the employment accounts in national accounts and the continuing vocational training survey (CVTS). No adjustment for possible double counting at external training programmes (e.g. at institutions of higher education).
9) Payments from the Federal Employment Agency to participants in continuing vocational education. It was not possible to eliminate cases (dual system, continuing education) where grants may have been included twice.
10) Calculated using research and development (R&D) statistical methods (Frascati Manual / OECD report). According to Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, 2014 data on the total of expenditure in the business enterprise sector are of limited comparability with previous years due to report revisions in one economic sector.

u = no data because the numerical value is not sufficiently reliable.

Last update: January 2020

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution 2.0.