|Absolute value||Share of GDP|
|Area||Billions of euros||Share (%)|
A Education budget in international demarcation (ISCED 2011) 2)
A30 Expenditure on educational institutions (state and private funded)
A31 ISCED 0: pre-primary level 3)
Of which, expenditure on children aged younger than 3 years
Of which, expenditure on children aged from 3 to school entrance
A32 ISCED 1-4: school and levels close to school, of which:
Vocational programmes 4)
In-company training under the dual system 5)
A33 ISCED 5-8: tertiary level 6)
Of which, vocational programmes
Of which, academic programmes (at higher education institutions)
Of which, research and development at higher education institutions
A34 Others (without ISCED classification) 7)
A40 Expenditure of private households on educational products and services beyond educational institutions
A50 Expenditure on the assistance to participants in ISCED education programmes
B Additional education-relevant expenditure in national demarcation
B10 Continuing vocational education 8)
B20 Expenditure on other educational opportunities
B30 Assistance to participants in continuing education 9)
A-B Total Education budget
C Research and development 10)
C40 Higher education institutions (additionally included in ISCED 5-8)
D Other education and science infrastructure
A-D Total expenditure for education, research and science (consolidated by higher education expenditure on R&D)
1) Expenditure pursuant to the performance concept. Demarcation pursuant to concept 2015. 2018 figures are preliminary. Possible rounding differences.
2) ISCED = International Standard Classification of Education.
3) Crèches, kindergartens, pre-school classes, school kindergartens.
4) Including schools for nurses, midwives etc.
5) Expenditure on company-based, extra-company and inter-company training under the dual system including training grants by the Federal Employment Agency, and the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
6) Excluding expenditure on patient treatment; including expenditure on trade and technical schools, specialised academies, vocational academies, R&D at higher education institutions, and the student services.
7) Expenditure can not be related to particular ISCED levels (including the estimated expenditure on training for civil servants, services of the public administration, and teacher training courses).
8) Estimate of the costs of continuing vocational training provided by companies is based on the results of the employment accounts in national accounts and the continuing vocational training survey (CVTS). No adjustment for possible double counting at external training programmes (e.g. at institutions of higher education).
9) Payments from the Federal Employment Agency to participants in continuing vocational education. It was not possible to eliminate cases (dual system, continuing education) where grants may have been included twice.
10) Calculated using research and development (R&D) statistical methods (Frascati Manual / OECD report).
u = no data because the numerical value is not sufficiently reliable.
Last update: June 2020