Source: Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ("Data base: European Patent Office (PATSTAT), OECD, World Bank", calculations)

Notes:
1) Inventions registered in the European Patent Office or at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
2) The category European Union represents those countries that were members of the EU in the respective year of reference (as of 2020, EU countries excluding United Kingdom).

m = data not available.

Last update: January 16, 2023

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