1) Some figures are revised, provisional, estimated, differently defined or only partly comparable with figures from previous years (see original edition of "Main Science and Technology Indicators 2021/1").
2) PNP: private non-profit institutions.
3) Until 1990, western German Länder only. As of 2016, increases of expenditure on higher education are partly due to an methodological adjustment of the R&D coefficients.
4) As of 2013, time series break because part of personnel data were reallocated from the category technical and other personnel to the category researchers. Until 2006, data correspond to higher education graduates instead of researchers. As of 2005, government sector excludes R&D personnel from the county councils.

m = data not available.

Last update: September 28, 2021

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.