Source: German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies, calculations; OECDMain Science and Technology Indicators 2019/1
This table also appears in the Federal Report on Research and Innovation as Table 35.

1) Some figures are revised, provisional, estimated, differently defined or only partly comparable with figures from previous years (see original edition of "Main Science and Technology Indicators 2019/1").
2) PNP: private non-profit institutions.
3) Until 1990, western German Länder only.
4) As of 2013, time series break because part of personnel data were reallocated from the category technical and other personnel to the category researchers.

m = data not available.

Last update: September 2019

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.