1) Until 1990, western German Länder only.
2) 2006 and 2007: limited comparability because some departments have not been included in the calculation.
3) Definition differs.
4) Funding by public research foundations is included until 1996 only.
5) Since 2004, loans for R&D that are returnable are not included, in order to ensure international comparability.
6) Some figures are revised, provisional, estimated or only partly comparable with figures from previous years (see original edition of "Main Science and Technology Indicators 2019/1").
7) Nominal expenditure converted into US dollar purchasing power parities.
8) The figures are based on years for that data are available.

m = data not available.

Last update: September 2019

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.