Source: German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies, calculations; OECDMain Science and Technology Indicators 2023/2
This table also appears in the Federal Report on Research and Innovation as Table 3.

1) Nominal expenditures converted into US dollar purchasing power parities.
2) Including general funding for higher education research.
3) PNP: private non-profit institutions.
4) Some figures are revised, provisional, estimated or only partly comparable with figures from previous years or include other sectors (see original edition of "Main Science and Technology Indicators 2023/2").
5) Until 1990, western German Länder only. From 1991 to 2021, the PNP sector is included in the performance data of the government sector. As of 2016, increases of expenditure on higher education are partly due to an methodological adjustment of the R&D coefficients.
6) As of 1995, funds received by the state research institutes from external sources are excluded from government allocations. From 1998 to 2004, due to methodological reasons funds from other foreign enterprises were merged with business enterprise funds thus reducing the share of funds coming from the rest of the world.
7) From 1981 to 1990, including extramural R&D expenditure. From 1986 to 1996, financing data of other national sources and abroad exclude other national sources.
8) Performance data of the government sector, from 1981 to 2004, only central government expenditure. In 1995, performance data of the higher education sector exclude most or all capital expenditure. From 1981 to 1991, business enterprise sector, government sector and PNP sector exclude R&D in the social sciences and humanities. As of 1998, excluding funding by public research foundations. 2015 data on GERD financed by the government sector and foreign sources are considered confidential.
9) For the years from 2014 onwards, estimates for R&D expenditure in the Business enterprise sector and in the Higher education sector were significantly revised by the United Kingdom. These changes reflect an uplift recalibration to account for under-sampled businesses performing R&D and the adoption of more comprehensive administrative data on expenditures for higher education institutions.
10) Government budget allocations for R&D data represent the budget for science and technology and cover central government only.
11) Until 2014, share of performance by the business enterprise sector: definition differs.
12) Until 2006, excluding R&D in the social sciences and humanities.
13) Excludes most or all capital expenditure (included in the business enterpreise and government sector only). Until 2008, government sector R&D performance covers only federal government activities. From 1981 to 2007, financing from foreign sources is included in the business enterprise sector, as of 2008, it is included in other national sources and abroad. Until 2002, the higher education sector excludes R&D in the social sciences and humanities.

m = data not available.
y = data included in another position.
z = value not stated for reasons of confidentiality, but included in the total.

Last update: April 10, 2024

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.