Notes:
1) Until 1990, former West Germany.
2) Until 2010, population data are based on past censuses. As of 2011, results of the population census (Bevölkerungsfortschreibung) are based on 2011 Census.
3) From 2013 to 2015, figures on children with foreign nationality are artificially inflated due to methodological reasons.
4) From 2008 to 2011, data are of limited comparability because of corrections in the register of residents. Due to methodological changes 2016 data are of limited comparability with the previous years; furthermore, over-coverage or under-coverage of the registration data on asylum seekers is possible.
5) Findings of the Microcensus. As of 2005, annual averages. As of 2011, calculated with data of the population census (Bevölkerungsfortschreibung) that is based on 2011 Census, comparability with the previous years is limited. As of 2017, population in private household without collective living quarters.
6) Results of counts of employed persons registered with the Federaly Employment Office. As of 1975, figures from statistics on employment covered by social security; as of 1999, revised data of the employment statistics; annual averages. As of 1996, survey reference day for each year is 30 June.
7) As of 2007, revised data due to a revision of the unemployment statistics.
8) Up to and including 2008, data are from the Institute for Employment Research. As of 2009, data are from the Federal Employment Agency. As of 2009, data are revised due to a revision of the unemployment statistics.
9) Referring to the total civilian labour force (excluding apprentices) of the same qualification.
10) According to calculations of the Institute for Employment Research. The figures differ from the unemployment statistics of the Federal Employment Agency because different basic values have been used. Referring to the total civilian labour force. As of 2011, revised data for employed persons based on 2011 Census.
11) General schools and vocational schools. As of 2013, the school part of the entrance qualification for universities of applied sciences is counted to the intermediate school certificate.
12) Staff in main professions only.
13) Findings of the statistics on public service personnel. Survey reference day for each year is 30 June.
14) As of 1997, excluding hospitals and teaching hospitals which keep commercial accounts. Due to the new budgetary system, as of 2002, limited comparability with the previous years only. Until 2009, findings of the financial statistics (Rechnungsstatistik), as of 2010, quarterly cash results with extended group of respondents.
15) Basic funds excluding expenditure on pensions. From 2012 to 2017: preliminary ACTUAL.
16) Until 1997, including teaching hospitals which keep commercial accounts. As of 1998, expenditure including teaching hospitals, not including DFG and special research programmes.
17) Annual findings of the German Regional Accounts. Pursuant to the European System of Accounts (ESA), 2014 revision. Date of calculations: August 2018.
18) Inhabitants data in the regional accounts are annual averages. Until 2010, population data are based on past censuses. As of 2011, population data are based on 2011 Census.

m = data not available.

Last update: April 2019