1) According to the ISCED classification: International Standard Classification for Education 2011. For older data according to ISCED 1997 see archive table 2.1.12. For data on early childhood education (ISCED 2011) see table 2.1.23.
2) From public and private sources of funds including international sources.
3) Year of reference 2012: including undistributed programmes.
4) The year specifications may differ from the years of reference. For a detailed specification see source.
5) Year of reference 2014: vocational programmes in upper secondary education include information from vocational programmes in lower secondary education.
6) Upper secondary education includes data from lower secondary education.
7) As of year of reference 2014: primary education includes data from pre-primary education (ISCED 02) and lower secondary education.
8) Partially public expenditure only.
9) Year of reference 2014: ISCED 6 to 8 include expenditure on public institutions only.
10) The categories OECD/EU23 average represent those countries that were members of the OECD/EU in the respective year of reference.
11) Year of reference 2012: EU21 average; 2013 to 2015: EU22 average.

a = data not applicable because category does not apply.
m = data not available.
y = data included in other category or column of the table.

Last update: October 2019

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