Source: Federal Ministry of Education and Research, special evaluation; Federal Statistical Office, special evaluation; Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, special evaluation
This table also appears in the Federal Report on Research and Innovation as Table 2.

Notes:
1) Data from surveys for the relevant domestic funding sectors. Until 1990, the former Federal Republic of Germany; as of 1991, all of Germany. Discrepancies from the figures in Table 1.1.1 result from use of different surveys (Table 1.1.2: survey of funding sectors; Table 1.1.1: survey of performing sectors).
2) Federal Government and the Länder. Funding for Federal research institutions, as of 1981; funding for Länder research institutions, as of 1983, but only shares for R&D. The increase of the R&D expenditure in 2016 is due to an increase in the higher education sector of the Länder (partly because of the adjustment of R&D coefficients).
3) Net expenditure without social insurance. As of 1998, excluding hospitals and university clinics with commercial accounting procedures.
4) Data from surveys of the Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik; from 1981 to 1989, figures include data for the R&D-staff-cost subsidy programme (German Federation of Industrial Co-operative Research Associations AiF), with an estimate for 1989, and adjusted to eliminate double counting. Figures for industry-funded R&D expenditures refer to intramural R&D expenditures and to funds that other sectors (e.g. universities, other countries) have received from business enterprises. Due to revision of the calculation method, as of 1991, figures are not comparable to data from earlier publications.
5) Financed from own funds. Some figures are estimates.

Last update: February 2019

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